Translation of a fatwa (Theological Edict) issued by Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama, Lucknow, India.

“Give below is the translation of a fatwa (edict) issued by Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama, Lucknow, India. The judgment was sought by Dr. Md Khalid Munir of Aligarh, seeking the clarification about some major doubts raised on Islam nowadays.

fatwa is a religious judgement issued in the light of Islam by an Islamic institution or a theologian expert in the discipline (Mufti), on specific questions asked. The process of issue of afatwa consists of thorough discussion within the board of Islamic jurists and then issuing forth of the judgment which is then signed by the board. A copy of the fatwa is also kept in the records of the institution. Thus, a Fatwa acts as a reference document on a particular issue.

 Nadwatul Ulama is one of the two major Islamic religious Institutions or the major seats of Islamic learning in the Indian subcontinent. The other one is Darul Uloom, Deoband. The Internationally renowned Islamic scholar Late Maulana Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi was formerly the Rector of Nadwatul-Ulama. The current Rector of the institution, Maulana Rabe Hasan Nadwi, who is also the President of the All Indian Muslim Personal Law Board (a national body of Islamic scholars which safeguards according to Islamic law, the interests of the Muslims in the judicial process), can be contacted for further discussion on the topic.”

Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama, P.O.Box 93, Tagore Marg, Lucknow. (U.P), INDIA. Phone: 91-522-2740151 Fax: 91-522-2741231

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and Merciful

 The Questions asked while requesting answers in the form of Edit(Fatwa)

What is the opinion of the Ulama and the Honourable Islamic jurists on the following issues? The translation with explanation of a few verses from the holy Quran is attached herewith.

1.       The battles fought in the history of Islam (that is during the period of the holy prophet (s.a.w) and the subsequent four caliphs namely Hazrat Abubakr, Hazrat Umar, Hazrat Uthman and Hazrat Ali), were for the propagation of Islam or the purpose of defense only?
2.       Under which circumstances is a war permissible in Islam?
3.       From the Islamic point of view, is it permissible to kill innocent people for religious or political motives; for example, by bombings etc.?
Yours sincerely,
Dr Mohammad Khalid Munir,
Aligarh Muslim University,
Aligarh, (U.P),
INDIA –202002.

 The Edict (Fatwa)

1.         All the battles fought during the early days of Islam were defensive only. In the very first battle, known in history as the battle of ‘Badr’, the Muslims did not go to Mecca to fight but fought the battle in their own defence at a place known as Badr near Medina. The second battle known as ‘Uhad’ was also fought in Medina against the infidels of Mecca. Even in the battle of ‘Khandak’, all the infidels of Arab and the Jews combined their forces at Medina in an effort to wipe out Islam and Muslims. But they were compelled in despair by the grace of Allah. The holy Prophet and his companions wanted to perform ‘Umrah’ (a holy ritual at the holy Kaaba), but were prevented from doing the same; and were compelled to enter into a treaty with the infidels on conditions specified by them. The treaty was known as the ‘Treaty of Hudaibiyah’. The infidels of Mecca themselves violated the treaty. This, compelled the Muslims to conquer Mecca as a defensive bid. After the weakening of the infidels, the Iranians and the Romans used different methods for damaging Islam and indulged in repeated hostilities. This compelled Muslims to engage in a war with them.

2.         Whenever a power uprises to damage Islam, a war is permissible. Whenever a power tries to destroy Islam, it is compulsory for all Muslims to fight in the defense of Islam.

3.         The killing of any innocent human being deliberately for any motive is absolutely not permissible in Islam.

Since murder is the source of violent disturbances and chaos in the society, which tends to disrupt the law and order in the world and can be the precursor of the grave loss to all humanity, Allah says in the Holy Quran: -

“Because of that We (Allah) prescribed to the children of Israel; who so kills a person, except for a person, or for corruption (for creating disorder and bloodshed) in the land, it shall be as if he had killed all mankind and whoso brings life to one, it shall be as if he had brought life to all mankind”
creating disorder and bloodshed” (Al-Quran 5:32).

Signed under official seal by:
Honourable Mufti Mehmood Hasan Hasani,
Center for Islamic Edicts,
Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama.
Countersigned by:
Honourable Mufti Nasir Ali,
Center for Islamic Edicts,
Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama.

Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama, 93,
Tagore Marg, Lucknow. (U.P),
Phone: 91-522-2740151
Fax: 91-522-2741231

The original Questions:

The Original Fatwa (Edict):